Coronavirus vaccine when will be available

Coronavirus vaccine: when will be available

Many laboratories and organizations across the world are working day and night to develop the Coronavirus vaccine. The WHO (World Health Organisation) is also coordinating with them to quickly develop vaccines. WHO is planning to distribute around 2 billion doses by the end of 2021.

Under normal circumstances, vaccine development and roll out in the market take around 10 years 15 years. The process of vaccine development is a three-stage clinical trial process. Once it passed through the three stages then it sents to the health regulatory for approval.

Since we require the vaccine urgently, laboratories are conducting stage trials in parallel. If the results of those will come out as per expectation, then it will be sent out for approval.

How Coronavirus vaccine will fight with Coronavirus

The vaccine will enhance your immune system and develop a defence system that will help to fight COVID-19. The defence system will be stronger than your natural defence system.

Covaxin- Bharat Biotech

The Coronavirus vaccine is developed by the Indian biotechnology company, in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology. It completed the first and second stage trials and a few days back, it got the approval for the third stage as well. The Phase I trials began in July and Phase II trials started in September. In phase 3 clinical trials around 26,000 participants will take the Covaxin shot in over 25 centers across India.

Covaxin

“It has shown safety and efficacy in phase 1 and 2 trials and in the animal studies – so it is safe but you can’t be 100% sure unless the phase 3 trials are over,” a senior ICMR scientist Rajni Kant, said.

Covaxin uses dead and non-infectious Cornavirus that couldn’t harm your body but help to develop antibodies to enhance your immune system. The infected person will require 2 doses of the Covaxin in a 14-days interval.

The Indian government is planning to launch the vaccine as early as February, next year (2021). The government is planning to manufacture around 500 million doses in the first phase.

NVX-CoV2373- Novavax

The Coronavirus vaccine is being developed by a biotechnology company Novavax based out in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The organization bioengineered the genetic sequence of COVID-19 (coronavirus spike protein). NVX-CoV2373 is a stable, prefusion protein made using Novavax’s recombinant protein nanoparticle technology that includes Novavax’s proprietary MatrixM™ adjuvant.

Novavax

It prevents Coronavirus’s spike protein to bind with the human cell’s receptor and destroys natural antibodies. It also triggers the generation of T-cells that helps to fight against pathogens. The vaccine requires 2 doses 21 days apart.

The organization is currently conducting phase 3 trials in the UK with 10,000 candidates. In addition, the company is also giving a seasonal influenza vaccine to 4000 participants as part of a co-administration sub-study that will help to study whether it is safe to give both medicines at once.

JNJ-78436735- Johnson & Johnson

The Coronavirus vaccine is being developed by Johnson & Johnson (JnJ) company. To develop a vaccine, JnJ extracted a piece of DNA from SARS-CoV-2 and insert it into the common cold-causing adenovirus. The vaccine is based on the same technology that the company used to develop the Ebola vaccine.

The company is currently conducting clinical trail 3 with around 60,000 participants from multiple countries.

mRNA-1273 – Moderna Therapeutacis

It is being developed by a biotech company, Moderna, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. The company developed the mRNA using a sequence of the virus (Coronavirus). These mRNA will insert into human cells where they mimic the characteristics of Coronavirus so that your immune system will train to recognize its presence. Moderns belives it will enhance your immune system and help to generate B and T cells. The vaccines require two doses, four weeks apart.

The company is currently conducting phase 3 trials with 30,000 candidates. It is eying to produce 20 million doses of its Coronavirus vaccine by the end of the year and 500 million by the second half of next year.

BNT162b2- Pfizer

The company is developing a Coronavirus vaccine in collaboration with the German biotech company BioNTech. Similar to Moderna’s Covid vaccine, it is also developing mRNA based Covid-19 vaccine. The company is planning to manufacture 20 to 40 million doses by the year’s end and 60 to 80 million by January.

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 – University of Oxford

The biopharmaceutical company AstraZeneca is developing the Coronavirus vaccine with the University of Oxford. The company engineered the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein into an adenovirus (the virus that causes the common cold) in such a way that it won’t replicate inside the human body. Inside the human body, it will mimic the Coronavirus that will trigger the immune system. This way the human immune system will train against the Coronavirus.

AstraZeneca is conducting phase 3 trials and is confident that they will deliver the medicine by late this year. Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials showed, the vaccine triggered immune response and develops T and B cells.

The company is conducting phase 3 trials in the US, UK, Brazil, South Africa, and Japan with over 50,000 candidates. In September, it paused the trails as one candidate reported symptoms of side effects. But after a week, the company resumed the trials after receiving approval from the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). The company didn’t share any details of the candidate due to privacy.

CoronaVac- Sinovac

The Chinese biopharmaceutical company Sinovac Biotech Ltd is developing a Coronavirus vaccine in collaboration with Brazilian research center Butantan. Similar to Indian Covaxin, it also uses non-infectious coronavirus to invoke the human immune system.

In June, the company published data and claimed that during phase 1 and Phase 2 trials participants showed triggered immune response. It also develops antibodies that could neutralize COVID-19. Currently, they are conducting phase 3 in Brazil and Indonesia.

The Coronavirus vaccine requires two doses in 14 days apart.