The Big Bang causes

What events triggered The Big Bang

Well, it all began around 13.7 billion years ago. But the question is how the big bang happened and how it came from nothing. As we know that we are living in an expanding universe. The gravitational force wanted to hold the universe together but dark energy wanted to expand it. The more the space acquired by the dark energy the stronger the dark energy will be.

For instance, a galaxy that is 2 light-years from the center of another galaxy will move away at a much slower rate than the galaxy that is 3 light-years from the center of the galaxy.

Scientists also observed rate of expansion of the universe caused by dark energy is much higher than it was 13.7 billion years ago.

One theory was that dark energy was responsible for Big Bang. But to expand the universe at such a high rate in such a fraction of a second, we require a very high energy density in a vacuum. So it is definitely not dark energy that expands the universe as it has very low energy to cause a big bang.

To understand how the universe was created, you need to understand the inflation field. The universe was created in a vacuum from the inflaton field. The inflaton field exists even in the vacuum.

Before The Big Bang

We already know that in quantum mechanism various fields such as Higgs Filed, scaler field, and inflaton filed exist. Unlike the other fields like a magnetic field which has both particles and energy, the inflaton field has just energy. The inflaton field has various virtual particles that appear and disappear continuously.

Since the inflaton field does have lots of energy but it doesn’t contain any physical particles. So in order to lose energy and achieve a stable state, it interacts with itself. To achieve a stable state, the inflaton field loses energy by changing states from higher states to lower state one step at a time. The lowest energy state is called the vacuum state.

But sometimes these fields have a local energy minimum. So if such a quantum field found itself near it, then it will be rolled to the bottom and stuck there. Now the field has lots of energy but no particle.

To achieve a lower stable state, this inflaton field always tries to move to the other side of the local energy minimum barrier or called quantum tunneling. Once they crossed the barrier or quantum tunneling, they achieve a lower stable state or a true vacuum state. In the process, most of the energy converted to elementary particles (electrons, fermions, leptons, etc) and super-hot plasma and give rise to a finite size universe.

Before the Big Bang (False vaccum state)

Now we have a finite size universe in which various elementary particles swim in super-hot plasma. They continuously collide with each other and decay into new lighter particles. In the process, it created an atom of matter that had such high energy density that gravitational force on the matter acts as a repulsive force instead of an attractive force.

The repulsive force of such matter was so high that it will repel so wild that it will blow up and expand into the new size. Due to this bang, the size of the universe expands the universe by a factor of 1025 in 10 -30 sec. The energy density of such atoms or the matter was so high that it is not possible to create such matter or particle in a lab.

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